# Tuesday, 03 March 2009

I talked about the new WF4 Runtime model a while back. One of the things I discussed was the new data flow model of arguments and variables. However, if you are used to WF 3.5 something looks a bit odd here. Lets look at a simple activity example:

public class WriteLineActivity : WorkflowElement
    public InArgument<string> Text { get; set; }
    protected override void Execute(ActivityExecutionContext context)

Why do I need to pass the ActivityExecutionContext when I want to get the data from the argument? This highlights a subtlety to the change in the runtime model. The activity is really just a template. A class called ActivityInstance is the thing that is actually executed, it just has a reference to the actual activity to be able to hand off to the activty’s methods (e.g. Execute). The actual argument state is stored in a construct called the LocalEnvironment. The ActivityExecutionContext gives access to  the current ActivityInstance and that in turn holds a reference to the current LocalEnvironment. Therefore, to get from  an activity’s Execute method to its state we have to go via the ActivityExecutionContext.

Tuesday, 03 March 2009 09:41:42 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Wednesday, 25 February 2009

I’ve finally got round to pushing the code for BlobExplorer to CodePlex. You can find the CodePlex site here. If you want to contribute to the project, let me know at richard at nospam dotnetconsult dot co dot uk and I’ll add you to the contributors list. The releases will continue being pushed to blob storage http://dotnetconsult.blob.core.windows.net/tools/BlobExplorer.zip

Wednesday, 25 February 2009 14:59:12 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Friday, 20 February 2009

A while back I did this post talking about how WCF contract definitions should model the messages being passed and not use business  objects. This inevitably  means that you have to translate from the Data Transfer Object (DTO) in the contract to business object and back again. This can feel like a lot of overhead but it really does protect you from a lot of heartache further down the line.

However Dom just pointed out the AutoMapper to me. This is in its early stages but looks like the kind of library that will really take away a lot of the grunt work associated with using DTOs – kudos!

Friday, 20 February 2009 18:55:55 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Friday, 06 February 2009

I've just dropped a new release of Blob Explorer for managing Windows Azure Blob Storage

Two new features:

  • Blob metadata can now be added and viewed
  • There is a status bar to show that long running uploads and downloads are in progress

As always you can get it from blob storage here


Friday, 06 February 2009 22:39:17 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Friday, 23 January 2009

Sometimes you have to wonder if this subject will ever go away …

A few weeks ago I posted on using OO constructs in your DataContracts. It’s one of those things that is understandable when .NET developers first start building message based systems. Another issue that raises its head over and over again goes along the lines of “I’m trying to send a DataSet back to my client and it just isn’t working properly”. This reminds me of the old joke:

Patient: Doctor, doctor it hurts when I do this (patient raises his arm into a strange position over his head)
Doctor: Well don’t do it then

So what is the issue with using DataSets as parameters or return types in your service operations?

Lets start off with interoperability – or the total lack thereof. If we are talking about interoperability we have to think about what goes into the WSDL for the DataSet – after all it is a .NET type. In fact DataSets, by default serialize as XML so surely it must be ok! Here’s what a DataSet looks like in terms of XML Schema in the WSDL

  <xs:element ref="xs:schema" /> 
  <xs:any />

In other words I’m going to send you some … XML – you work out what do with it. But hold on – if I use Add Service Reference, it *knows* its a DataSet so maybe it is ok. Well WCF cheats; just above that sequence is another piece of XML

       <ActualType Name="DataSet" Namespace="http://schemas.datacontract.org/2004/07/System.Data"
="http://schemas.microsoft.com/2003/10/Serialization/" /> 

So WCF cheats by putting an annotation only it understands into the schema so it knows to use a DataSet. If you really do want to pass back arbitrary XML as part of a message then use an XElement.

So how about if I have WCF on both ends of the wire? Well then you’ve picked a really inefficient way to transfer around the data. You have to remember how highly functional a DataSet actually is. Its not just the data in the tables that support that functionality, there is also : change tracking data to keep track of what rows have been added, updated and removed since the DataSet was filled; relationship data between tables; a schema  describing itself. DataSets are there to support disconnected processing of tabular data, not as a general purpose data transfer mechanism.

Then you may say – “hey we’re running on an intranet – the extra data is unimportant”. So the final issue you get with a DataSet is tight coupling of the service and the consumer. Changes to the structure of the data on one side of the wire cascade to the other side to someone who may not be expecting the changes. Admittedly not all changes will be breaking ones but are you sure you know which ones will be and which ones won’t. As long as the data you actually want to pass isn’t changing why are you inflicting this instability on the other party in the message exchange. The likelihood that you will have to make unnecessary changes to, say, the client when the service changes is increased with DataSets 

So what am I suggesting to do instead? Instead model the data that you do want to pass around using DataContract (or XElement if you truly want to be able to pass untyped XML). Does this mean you have to translate the data from a DataSet to this DataContract when you want to send it? Yes it does, but that code can be isolated in a single place. When you receive the data as a DataContract and want to process it as a DataSet, does this mean you have to recreate a DataSet programmatically? Yes it does, but again you can isolate this code in a single place.

So what does doing this actually buy you if you do that work? You get something which is potentially interoperable, that only passes the required data across the wire and that decouples the service and the consumer.

Friday, 23 January 2009 16:49:20 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Thursday, 22 January 2009

I’ve been writing a lab on Workflow Services in 4.0 recently. Part of what I was showing was the new data orientated correlation (the same kind of mechanism that BizTalk uses for correlation). So I wanted to have two operations that were correlated to the same workflow instance based on data in the message (rather than a smuggled context id as 3.5 does it). As I was writing this lab I suddenly started getting an InvalidOperationException stating DispatchOperation requires Invoker every time I brought the .xamlx file up in a browser. It appeared that others had seen this as well but not really solved it. So I dug around looking at the XAML (workflow services can be written fully declaratively now) and the config file and could see no issues there. I asked around but no one I asked knew the reason.

So I created a simple default Declarative Workflow Service project and that worked ok. I compared my lab workflow and the default one and it suddenly dawned on me what was wrong. The default project has just one operation on the contract and has a ServiceOperationActivity to implement it. My contract had my two operations but I had, so far, only bound one ServiceOperationActivity. So in other words I had not implemented the contract. This is obviously an issue and looking back I’m annoyed I didn’t see it sooner.

However, the problem is that this is a change in behavior between 3.5 and 4.0. In 3.5 if I didn’t bind a ReceiveActivity to every operation I got a validation warning but I could still retrieve metadata; in 4.0 you get a fatal error. Its not hugely surprising that the behavior has changed – after all the whole infrastructure has been rewritten.

On the whole its a good thing that implementation of the contract is enforced – although it would be nice if the validation infrastructure caught this at compile time rather than it being a runtime failure.

.NET | BizTalk | WCF | WF
Thursday, 22 January 2009 10:10:15 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Wednesday, 21 January 2009

A forum question was asking how to create a host that dynamically loaded up services deployed in DLLs. I told the poster to use reflection but he wasn't familiar with it so I thought I would quickly knock up a sample

The host looks in a folder under the directory in which it is executing. The service must be annotated with a [ServiceClass] attribute (defined in a library that accompanies the host). Then you set up the config file for the service ( [ServiceBehavior(ConfigurationName="<some name>")] helps decouple the config from the actual implementing type nicely

The sample is here

DynamicHost.zip (77.07 KB)

Wednesday, 21 January 2009 11:00:56 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Tuesday, 20 January 2009

Christian found a bug in BlobExplorer when the blob name has pseudo directory structure in it (common prefixes)

Fixed version is available here

Tuesday, 20 January 2009 10:10:25 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Friday, 16 January 2009

Hanging out on the WCF Forums, it appears one in five answers I give seem to be to do with sessions in WCF. As a result, rather than write the same thing over and over again I decided to distil my forum posts into a blog post that I can link to.

WCF has the concept of a session. A session is simply an identifier for the proxy making the call. Where does this ID come from? Well it depends on the binding: with NetTcpBinding, the session is inherent in the transport – TCP is a connected session based transport; with WSHttpBinding session is an artifice piggybacking either WS-SecureConversation or WS-ReliableMessaging. So different bindings go via different mechanisms to achieve the concept of session. However, not all bindings support session – BasicHttpBinding, for example, has no mechanism for maintaining a session. Be aware that every mechanism for maintaining a session in WCF has issues with load balancing. The relationship between proxy and service is a machine-bound one. If you want to use load balancing you will have to use sticky sessions.

So what does having a session do for me? Well some parts of the infrastructure rely on sessions – callbacks for example. WCF also supports the ability to associate a specific instance of the service implementation class with a session (called PerSession instancing). Having a specific instance for the session can seem very attractive in that it allows you to make multiple calls to a service from a specific proxy instance and the service can maintain state in member variables in that service instance in behalf of the client. In fact, if the binding supports session, this is the default model for mapping service instances to requests. WCF also supports two other instancing models (controlled by the service behavior InstanceContextmode): PerCall – each request gets its own instance; Single – all calls use a single instance.

Session has an impact beyond the service – client proxy behavior is affected by the idea of session. Say the client crashes, what happens to the session? Again this depends on the binding. NetTcpBinding is connection orientated so the service side gets torn down if the client crashes. WSHttpBinding on the othe hand rides on top of a connectionless protocol (HTTP) and so if the client crashes the service has no idea. In this situation the session will eventually time out depending on the configuration of WS-SecureConverstion or WS-ReliableMessaging – the default is 10 minutes. To tear down the session the proxy has to call back to the service to say that it is done. This means that closing the proxy in the client is crucial to efficient session management and that Close with WSHttpBinding will actually roundtrip to the service. If the service has died, Close, in this situation will throw an exception and you must call Abort to clean up the proxy correctly.

Session also has effects that are often hidden during development. WCF has an inbuilt throttle to control concurrent operations. There are three throttles: concurrent requests (self explanatory); concurrent objects (remember that there are options as to how many service instances service requests – in reality this one is very unlikely to affect you); and most importantly for the discussion here, concurrent sessions – this defaults to 10. So if you do not clean up your proxy by default your service will support up to 10 concurrent proxies which is generally way too low for many systems.

Sometimes your service will require the ability to maintain per client state. However, due to the complexity of dealing with sessions it is often best to avoid them (unfortunately impossible with the NetTcpBinding) and use another, applkication defined, session identifier and put the session state in a database. However, for example with callbacks, sometimes you require session in your service. In this case you should annotate your contract with the modified ServiceContract


If you do not need session and you do not need to use a session orientated protocol like named pipes or tcp then I would turn off session explicitly by using the following on the contract


In my experience it is rarely useful to use sessions and they introduce overhead, load balancing restrictions and complexity for the client.

Friday, 16 January 2009 23:18:54 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Saturday, 10 January 2009

I'm really excited to announce that I've joined thinktecture as a consultant. I've known Ingo, Christian and Dominick for some time now and its great to take that relationship on to a new level. I have huge respect for the abilities of the thinktecture team and so it was fantastic when they asked me if I was interested in working with them.

I'll be focusing on all things distributed at thinktecture - so that includes WCF, Workflow, BizTalk, Dublin and Azure. And I guess I'll have to learn to speak German now ...

Azure | BizTalk | Dublin | Life | WCF | WF
Saturday, 10 January 2009 18:27:22 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   |