# Tuesday, 12 February 2008

Recently I wrote an article on Volta for the DevelopMentor newsletter DevelopMents. I concentrated on the core of what Volta is doing, IL rewriting, rather than highlight the IL to JavaScript functionality that has caught most attention. You can read the article here.

.NET | Volta
Tuesday, 12 February 2008 21:09:49 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 

Recently I discussed creating robust multi-host workflow architectures with WF using the SqlWorkflowPersistenceService. I talked about an issue with the way workflow ownership is implemented and  showed some code that would fix the issue but that I also said was a hack. Ayende rightly pointed out that for high volume systems it would be a disaster. The point of that post was to highlight the problem.

Ideally the workflow team will fix the persistence service to recover from abandoned workflows more robustly - in the meantime the following stored procedure will unlock the abandoned workflows and make then runnable. The idea is to make this a scheduled job in the database running every few seconds - this is essentially what BizTalk does.

CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.ClearUnlockedWorkflows

InstanceState Set ownerID=null
  WHERE NOT ownerID is NULL and 
ownedUntil < getdate


The only oddity in the code is the setting of the nextTimer to the current time. The issue is that straight persistence (as opposed to unloading on a delay) sets this value to 31st Dec 9999 which is obviously not going to be reached for some time. Unfortunately the workflow will only be scheduled due to an expired timer so I have to reset the timer such that it will expire immediately. I can't think of any issues this would cause but if there's a scenario I haven't thought of all comments are welcome.

.NET | BizTalk | WF
Tuesday, 12 February 2008 09:57:13 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Wednesday, 06 February 2008

For the third year running I'm going to be speaking at BearPark's DevWeek conference. This year I actually managed to submit some breakout session titles on time too.

Wednesday 12th March

11:30 A developer’s guide to Windows Workflow Foundation
There are many challenges to writing software. Not least of these are lack of transparency of code and creating software that can execute correctly in the face of process or machine restart. Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) introduces a new way of writing software that solves these problems and more. This session explains what WF brings to your applications and explains how it works. Along the way we will see the major features of WF that make it a very powerful tool in your toolkit, removing the need for you to write a lot of complex plumbing.

14:00 Creating robust, long-running Workflows
Long-running processes have unique requirements in that they need to maintain state over process restart; Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) enables this with its persistence infrastructure. However, there are issues around hosting and activity development that require attention for long running workflows to be robust. This session looks at the design of the workflow persistence service; issues around hosting and creating full featured asynchronous activities. This session assumes some familiarity with WF.

16:00 Cross my palm with Silver – creating workflow-based WCF services
There are very good reasons for using a workflow to implement a WCF service: workflows can provide a clear platform for service composition (using a number of building block services to generate functionally richer service); workflows can manage long running stateful services without having to write your own plumbing to achieve this. This session introduces the new Visual Studio 2008 Workflow Services. This technology, previously known as “Silver”, provides a relatively seamless integration between WF and WCF, enabling the service developer to concentrate on the application functionality rather than the plumbing. This session assumes some familiarity with WF and WCF.

Friday 14th March - Postcon

A day of connected systems with Visual Studio 2008
Most businesses find themselves building applications that use two or more machines working together to produce their functionality. One of the challenges in this world, apart from the actual business logic being implemented, is connecting the different parts of the application in a way that best fits the environment the machines are places – are there firewalls in place? Are some parts of the application written on different platforms such as Java? Do the different parts of the application have to maintain their state over machine restart? Late 2006 saw Microsoft release WCF and WF to tackle some of these challenges. However, parts of the story were left untold – especially the integration between the two.
Visual Studio 2008 introduces a number of new features for writing service based software. Its features build on the libraries released as part of .NET 3.0, providing an integration layer between the two. In this pre/post conference session we start at the basics of how WCF and WF work and then look at the various integration technologies introduced in Visual Studio 2008.

So if you're attending DevWeek I hope to see you there

Wednesday, 06 February 2008 15:16:10 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   | 
# Monday, 04 February 2008

One of the most powerful features of the Windows Workflow Foundation is its ability to automate state management of long running processes using a persistence service. Microsoft supply a persistence service out of the box - the SqlWorkflowPersistenceService. Unsurprisingly this persists state in SQL Server (or SQL Express).

Once you have a persistence service more possibilities open up: different applications can progress the same workflow instance over time; multiple hosts can process workflows in a scale out model. This second feature needs a little investigation - there is a gotcha hiding there you need to be aware of.

The issue is how to stop more than one host picking up the same instance of a workflow and processing it at the same time - imagine the workflow transfered $10,000,000 from one account to another, you'd hardly want this happening twice. So if the possiblity exists for multiple hosts to see the same persistence store, the persistence service must be able to ensure only one host is executing a workflow at any one time.

The SqlWorkflowPersistenceService handles multiple concurrent hosts by using the concept of workflow ownership - the guid of a host (created randomly by the persistence service constructor) is stamped against a workflow that it is actively executing (not in an idle or completed state). Now the question comes "what if the host dies while executing a workflow?". This is what the ownership timeout is for. You set the ownership timeout in the constructor of the SqlWorkflowPersistenceService.

SqlWorkflowPersistenceService sql = 
new SqlWorkflowPersistenceService(CONN, 


Here the third parameter specifies how long a host is allowed to run a workflow before persistence occurs. If the host takes longer than this then it will get an error when it atempts to persist. The fourth parameter is the polling interval for how often the persistence service will check for expired timers.

Now the idea is that if a host dies then it's lock will timeout and another host can pick up the work. There is a problem, however, in the implementation. The persistence service only looks for expired ownership locks when it first starts - not when it polls for expired timers. Therefore, for a workflow instance whose host has died mid-processing, it will only recover if a new host instance starts after the timeout has occurred.

So how can you make this more robust? Well we need a way to explicitly load the workflows that have had their ownership expire - unfortunately there is no exposed method to do this on the SqlWorkflowPersistenceService. Instead we have to get all the workflows, catch the exception if we load a locked one and unload any that aren't ready to run. Here is an example:

TimerCallback cb = delegate
// get all the persisted workflows
  foreach (var item in
      // load the workflow - this will throw a WorkflowOwnershipException if
      // the workflow is currently owned
inst = workflowRuntime.GetWorkflow(item.WorkflowInstanceId);

      // Unload workflow if its still idle on a timer
      DateTime timerExpiry = (DateTime)item.NextTimerExpiration;
      if (timerExpiry > DateTime
      // Loaded a workflow locked by another instance

Timer t = new Timer(cb, null, 0, 1000);

So this code will attempt to load workflow instances with expired locks every second. Is it a hack? Yes. But without one of two things in the SqlWorkflowPersistenceService its the sort of code you have to write to pick up unlocked workflow instances robustly. The workflow team could:

  • Check for expired ownership locks in the stored procedure that checks for timer expiration
  • Provide a method on the persistence service that explicitly allows the loading of unlocked workflow instances

Maybe in the next version :-)

Monday, 04 February 2008 11:07:39 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #    Disclaimer  |   |